From the results of their current research, it was found that simply increasing awareness of resources raises instrumentality, but does not increase of activity Wood, et al, The underpaid group experienced feelings of inequity using the higher paid group members as their comparative others.
A Field Experiment Greenberg stated that, "according to equity theory, workers who receive levels of reward higher or lower than coworkers who made equivalent contributions to their jobs are considered overpaid and underpaid respectively" p.
However, when ratios are different, a state of inequity exists, and employees will be motivated to bring it back into balance. The Journal of General Education, 44 3The dependent variable in the study was the individual drug arrest rate of each respondent.
During their first days with the company, new interns sit down with management to discuss job expectations, skills and aspirations. From the research that has been conducted to test the theory, overall results suggest that the theory can be useful as a predictor of the choices people will make when given different tasks, and remains a popular theory in the workplace.
The data was collected at six intervals, two before reassignment, two during, and two after Redmond, Johnson, The researcher developed four hypothesis based on the expectancy, instrumentality, valence, and overall motivation described in the Expectancy Theory.
By isolating selected variables, a reward system can be more effectively designed, and can make it possible to determine whether or not the rewards implemented are effecting positive change. When the questionnaire method is selected, it can be administered to all company employees and can better facilitate isolating certain variables within the company overall.
The concept of this assumption is that people contemplate their actions to achieve the rewards, or in other words, it assumes that people consciously know what rewards are in their own best interest. Study 2 During this study researchers attempted to replicate their findings from study 1 by using a large sample of US federal government workers from the Office of Personnel Management.
Problem-based school development PBSD is an approach that takes staff development and school form to the next level by creating a professional community capable of sustaining longterm educational reform Clarke et al.
Equity sensitives will experience distress when faced with either type of inequity: Some researchers have warned, however, that merit pay may change the relationships between teachers and students: Valence In accordance with expectancy theory each student has different values and views rewards differently.
In a study, Latham found that unionized truck drivers increased the number of logs loaded onto their trucks from 60 percent to 90 percent of the legal allowable weight as a result of setting goals. In addition, the nurses who had a higher need for control over situations experienced a higher degree of this burnout, whereas the nurses who had a higher degree of intrinsic motivation experienced lower burnout or emotional distress.
Quality, in their study, was defined as customer perceptions of the quality of goods and services. The average validity coefficients for between-subjects designs ranges in the.
Dr Edwin Locke and Dr Gary Latham spent many years researching the theory of goal setting, during which time they identified five elements that need to be in place for us to achieve our goals.
It can be detrimental in their overall motivation. Mills, and Mariam L. Adams' equity theory Source: As in underpayment conditions, which is observed and proven through the research of the Greenburg Studies in Theory Makes practical sense For example: My goal is to reduce maintenance downtime by 15 percent.
Example Check out this link for a link for an example of how Coach Bombay used Expectancy Theory in motivating his team to work together. It is the outcome given that the outcome is valued by the individual that drives the motivational state according to the expectancy theory.
The average validity coefficients for between-subjects designs ranges in the. Relocation and acclimation assistance can help the new teacher with locating housing, can share information about the community, and can introduce the recruit to other new teachers. It is the outcome given that the outcome is valued by the individual that drives the motivational state according to the expectancy theory.
The hypothesis under evaluation was: Because of this organizational structure, teachers are difficult to supervise, do not receive regular feedback from others, and often find it hard to collaborate.
Employees with greater experience know their organization very well and compare themselves with their own colleagues, while employees with less experience rely on their personal experiences and knowledge for making comparisons.
Another limitation is that learning goals do not always foster interest, and interest goals do not always facilitate learning. The punishment declines the tendency to be late.
Collectivistic cultures make a clear distinction between their in-groups and out-groups compared to those in the individualistic cultures. Instrumentality is the degree of belief that an individual has that their level of performance will ultimately lead to an anticipated outcome PSU, Another research study in expectancy tested the hypotheses that the behavior of some individuals are determined by personal expectancies while the behavior of other individuals are determined by social norms.
Making motivation central to the initiation of work activity provides strong theoretical groundwork to explain management operations as they relate to motivating followers Wood, et al, Additionally, the workplace can involve more participants than company and employee alone. Much research has been conducted on the validity of expectancy theory in the classroom but has not offered much in the way in which teachers can use expectancy theory in the classroom (Hancock, ).
Other explanations of employee motivation are embodied in the three-needs theory, goal-setting theory, reinforcement theory, intrinsic/extrinsic theory, equity theory, and. Start studying MGT Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory. A Equity Theory: How fairly do you think you"re being treated in Relation to Others Goal setting theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals. 3.
Assume you were hired by Michelle Rhee to incorporate goal setting into her motivational program. How could goal setting be used to motivate teachers to provide a higher quality learning experience for students?
Goal Setting for specific performance goals could be useful but you have to first, set specific and attainable goals. Specific. For example, employees can use the equity theory to determine if inequity has occurred, and if so, they can use the expectancy theory to act upon the inequity.
Weaknesses The following factors illustrate some of the problems with Equity Theory. -Increased performance in the work of professors, students, life insurance brokers-Higher blood pressure, heart disease, -Equity theory-Expectancy theory-Goal setting theory.
-Key elements of equity theory-Inputs: "what do you think you're putting into the job?" the inputs that people perceive they give to an organization are their time.How do you think professors could use equity expectancy and goal setting theory to motivate students